Risk Management without Risk Reduction? The Role of Social Vulnerability in Post-Disaster Recovery after Floods in Germany

Authors

  • Mark Kammerbauer Fakultät Architektur, Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm, Bahnhofstraße 90, 90402, Nürnberg, Deutschland
  • Christine Wamsler Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies, Lund University, 170, 22100, Lund, Schweden

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1007/s13147-018-0556-x

Keywords:

Environmental disaster, Flood, Vulnerability, Recovery, Building back better, Risk management, Urban planning, Resilience

Abstract

Environmental and climate hazards, such as floods, increasingly cause damages in cities and urbanised areas in Germany. The capacity of the impacted populations to cope with the outcome of related disasters is, amongst others, influenced by their vulnerability. Vulnerability reduction is thus key for creating social or structural resilience. This is particularly the case during post-disaster recovery and reconstruction. Recovery planning is, per definition, supposed to enable improvement, rather than a reconstruction of the status quo. However, which role does vulnerability play in recovery projects, and what kind of a recovery can improved planning lead to as a result? Based on a case study of the flood disaster of the river Danube in 2013, and particularly the Bavarian city of Deggendorf, we investigate these questions. From 2013 to 2018, data was collected by means of a survey, a spatial analysis and qualitative interviews. The results show how particular social vulnerabilities strongly influence the individual access to resources required during recovery and reconstruction as well as the capacity to deal with long-term disaster impacts. We conclude that recovery and development planning needs to acknowledge such vulnerabilities to a higher degree. The article contributes to discussions on the societal and governance causes for social vulnerability and is oriented towards actors responsible for planning and disaster management as well as the increasingly impacted public.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik (2016): Regionalisierte Bevölkerungsvorausberechnung für Bayern bis 2035. Fürth. = Beiträge zur Statistik Bayerns 548.

Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (2013): Eine Auswahl wichtiger statistischer Daten für den Landkreis Deggendorf. München.

Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (2014): Zensus 2011: Gemeindedaten Bevölkerung. Ergebnisse für Bayern. München.

Birkmann, J. (2006): Measuring vulnerability to promote disaster resilient societies: Conceptual frameworks and definitions. In: Birkmann, J. (Hrsg.): Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards. Towards Disaster Resilient Societies. Tokio, 9‑54.

Bohle, H.-G. (2001): Vulnerability and Criticality: Perspectives from Social Geography. In: Newsletter of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change 2, 1, 3‑5.

Bohle, H.-G.; Glade, T. (2008): Vulnerabilitätskonzepte in Sozial- und Naturwissenschaften. In: Felgentreff, C.; Glade, T. (Hrsg.): Naturrisiken und Sozialkatastrophen. Heidelberg, 99-119.

Bolin, B. (2006): Race, Class, Ethnicity, and Disaster Vulnerability. In: Rodriguez, H.; Quarantelli, H. L.; Dynes, R. R. (Hrsg.): Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, 113-129.

Bürkner, H.-J. (2010): Vulnerabilität und Resilienz. Forschungsstand und sozialwissenschaftliche Untersuchungsperspektiven. Erkner. = IRS-Working Paper 43.

Chambers, R. (1989): Editorial Introduction: Vulnerability, Coping and Policy. In: IDS Bulletin 20, 2, 1‑7. doi: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.1989.mp20002001.x

Cutter, S. L.; Finch, C. (2008): Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 7, 2301-2306. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0710375105

Davis, I.; Alexander, D. (2016): Recovery from Disaster. Oxford.

Deutsche Bundesregierung (2014): Erdbeobachtung für Mensch und Umwelt. Ergebnisbericht. Berlin.

Deutscher Bundestag (2013): Bericht zur Flutkatastrophe 2013: Katastrophenhilfe, Entschädigung, Wiederaufbau. Berlin. = Drucksache 17/14743 vom 19. September 2013.

Deutscher Bundestag (2017): Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur weiteren Verbesserung des Hochwasserschutzes und zur Vereinfachung von Verfahren des Hochwasserschutzes (Hochwasserschutzgesetz II). Berlin. = Drucksache 18/10879 vom 18. Januar 2017.

DKKV – Deutsches Komitee Katastrophenvorsorge (2015): Das Hochwasser im Juni 2013: Bewährungsprobe für das Hochwasserrisikomanagement in Deutschland. Bonn. = DKKV-Schriftenreihe 53.

Flick, U. (2012): Qualitative Sozialforschung. Eine Einführung. Reinbek.

Gerring, J. (2007): Case Study Research. Principles and Practices. Cambridge.

Kallus, P. (2013a): Größte Katastrophe seit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. In: Donau-Anzeiger vom 5. Juni 2013, 29.

Kallus, P. (2013b): Das große Aufräumen hat begonnen. In: Donau-Anzeiger vom 10. Juni 2013, 9.

Kallus, P. (2013c): Vor den Trümmern der Existenz. In: Donau-Anzeiger vom 12. Juni 2013, 9.

Kallus, P. (2013d): Medienrummel in den versunkenen Siedlungen. In: Donau-Anzeiger vom 15. Juni 2013, 11.

Kammerbauer, M. (2014): Asymmetrischer Wiederaufbau in Städten nach Katastrophen. Das Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans nach Orkan Katrina. In: Raumforschung und Raumordnung 72, 5, 427-439. doi: 10.1007/s13147-014-0309-4

Kammerbauer, M.; Kaltenbach, F. (2014): Sanierung bei Schadstoffbelastung in Überschwemmungsgebieten – Wann kommt das „Hochwasserhaus“? In: Detail 5, 468-474.

Landratsamt Deggendorf (2017a): Aktuelle Zahlen Aufbauhilfe Stand 29.05. 2017. Arbeitspapier des Landratsamts Deggendorf. Deggendorf.

Landratsamt Deggendorf (2017b): Zusammenfassung Hochwasser Deggendorf. Arbeitspapier des Landratsamts Deggendorf. Deggendorf.

Miles, M. B.; Huberman, M. A. (1994): Qualitative Data Analysis. An Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks.

Munich Re (2017): Naturkatastrophen 2016. Analysen, Bewertungen, Positionen. München.

Oliver-Smith, A. (1991): Successes and Failures in Post-Disaster Resettlement. In: Disasters 15, 1, 12-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.1991.tb00423.x

Oliver-Smith, A. (2009): Climate Change and Population Displacement: Disasters and Diasporas in the Twenty-first Century. In: Crate, S. A.; Nuttall, M. (Hrsg.): Anthropology and Climate Change. From Encounters to Actions. Abingdon, 116-138.

O’Mathúna, D. P. (2010): Conducting research in the aftermath of disasters: ethical considerations. In: Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 3, 2, 65-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-5391.2010.01076.x

Olshansky, R.; Chang, S. E. (2009): Planning for disaster recovery: emerging research needs and challenges. In: Progress in Planning 72, 4, 200-209. doi: 10.1016/j.progress.2009.09.001

Rodriguez, H.; Quarantelli, E. L.; Dynes, R. R. (Hrsg.) (2006a): Handbook of Disaster Research. New York.

Rodriguez, H.; Quarantelli, E. L.; Dynes, R. R. (2006b): Editor’s Introduction. In: Rodriguez, H.; Quarantelli, E. L.; Dynes, R. R. (Hrsg.): Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, xiii-xx.

Schnell, R.; Hill, P.; Esser, E. (2011): Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung. München.

Stadt Deggendorf (2012): Adressbuch 2012/2013. Deggendorf.

Stadt Deggendorf (2014): Adressbuch 2014/2015. Deggendorf.

StMUV – Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz (2017): Integrale Konzepte zum kommunalen Sturzflut-Risikomanagement. München.

Susman, P.; O’Keefe, P.; Wisner, B. (1983): Global disasters, a radical interpretation. In: Hewitt, K. (Hrsg.): Interpretations of Calamity from the Viewpoint of Human Ecology. Boston, 263-283.

Turner, B. L.; Kasperson, R. E.; Matson, P. A.; McCarthy, J. J.; Corell, R. W.; Christensen, L.; Eckley, N.; Kasperson, J. X.; Luers, A.; Martello, M. L.; Polsky, C.; Pulsipher, A.; Schiller, A. (2003): A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 14, 8074-8079. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1231335100

UNISDR – United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015): Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Genf.

UN Habitat (2017): Trends in Urban Resilience 2017. Nairobi.

Wamsler, C. (2014): Cities, Disaster Risk and Adaptation. London.

Wamsler, C. (2016): From risk governance to city-citizen collaboration: Capitalizing on individual adaptation to climate change. In: Environmental Policy and Governance 26, 3, 184-204. doi: 10.1002/eet.1707

Wamsler, C.; Kammerbauer, M. (2017): Reconstructing Vulnerability after the Germany Floods: Oil Damage and Recovery. In: March, A.; Kornakova, M. (Hrsg.): Urban Planning for Disaster Recovery. Oxford, 129-139.

White, G. (1942): Human adjustment to floods. A geographical approach to the flood problem in the US. Chicago. = University of Chicago Department of Geography Research Paper 29.

Wisner, B. (2016): Vulnerability as Concept, Model, Metric, and Tool. Oxford. doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.25

Wisner, B.; Blaikie, P.; Cannon, T.; Davis, I. (2004): At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters. Abingdon.

Yin, R.K. (2009): Case Study Research. Design and Methods. Los Angeles.

Downloads

Published

2018-12-31

Issue

Section

Research Article

How to Cite

1.
Kammerbauer M, Wamsler C. Risk Management without Risk Reduction? The Role of Social Vulnerability in Post-Disaster Recovery after Floods in Germany. RuR [Internet]. 2018 Dec. 31 [cited 2024 May 22];76(6):485–496. Available from: https://rur.oekom.de/index.php/rur/article/view/353