From the “project within the project” to the “city within the city”? Governance and Management Problems in Large Urban Development Projects Using the Example of the Science City Belval, Luxembourg

Authors

  • Annick Leick Darmstadt, Deutschland
  • Markus Hesse Université de Luxembourg, Département de Géographie et Aménagement du territoireEsch-sur-Alzette, Luxemburg
  • Tom Becker Université de Luxembourg, Département de Géographie et Aménagement du territoireEsch-sur-Alzette, Luxemburg

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.2478/rara-2020-0009

Keywords:

Project management, Large-scale urban development projects, Science locations, Urban governance, Luxembourg

Abstract

The paper explores the issue of new urban development areas from two specific perspectives: on the one hand, rather than concentrating on housing, we address the question of science and research, in particular university locations and science parks, as a central guiding principle for urban expansion. On the other hand, the paper focuses on the analysis of urban management and governance practices and, more specifically, the disjoining of large projects from their common urban planning context. Emphasis is put on the fact that such undertakings are defined as ‘projects’ and that they are subordinated to a specific management approach. Amid debates concerning large-scale urban development projects and urban governance, we develop the thesis that the risk for projects to unfold as a sort of ‘foreign matter’ in the urban realm increases as the degree to which they are subject to proven planning processes and regulatory practices diminishes. This argument will be empirically illustrated with Belval, the science city in the south of Luxembourg, which is developed ever since 2003 and whose progress is critically assessed here. The general conclusions include planning requirements for dealing with new large-scale development projects.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Addie, J.-P. D.; Acuto, M.; Ho, K. C.; Cairns, S.; Tan, H. P. (2019): Perspectives on the 21st Century Urban University from Singapore – A viewpoint forum. In: Cities 88, 252-260. 10.1016/j.cities.2018.11.006

Agamben, G. (1998): Homo sacer: Sovereign power and bare life. Stanford.

Agora (2002): Concours pour la réalisation de l’urbanisation de Belval-Ouest Esch-sur-Alzette/Sanem (Belvaux) Luxembourg / Städtebaulicher Realisierungswettbewerb Belval-Ouest Esch-sur-Alzette/Sanem (Belvaux) Luxembourg. Documentation et perspectives / Dokumentation und Perspektiven. Esch-sur-Alzette.

Agora (2017): Projet de reconversion de l’ancien site sidérurgique d’Esch-Schifflange. Rapport de synthèse des études environnementales et des diagnostics préalables. Esch-sur-Alzette.

Banai, R. (2013): Plan vs. project dilemma revisited: a progress review of urban and regional studies literature. In: Urban Studies 50, 4, 807-824. 10.1177/0042098012458548

Becker, T.; Hesse, M. (2013): Building a sustainable university from scratch: anticipating the urban, regional and planning dimension of the ‘Cité des Sciences Belval’ in Esch-sur-Alzette and Sanem, Luxembourg. In: König, A. (Hrsg.): Regenerative Sustainable Development of Universities and Cities: The Role of Living Laboratories. Cheltenham, 254-272.

Benneworth, P.; Hospers, G.-J.; Jongbloed, B.; Leyiste, L.; Zomer, A. (2011): The ‘Science City’ as a System Coupler in Fragmented Strategic Urban Environments. In: Built Environment 37, 3, 317-335.

Carrière, J.-P.; Demazière, C. (2002): Urban Planning and Flagship Development Projects: Lessons from Expo 98, Lisbon. In: Planning, Practice and Research 17, 1, 69-79. 10.1080/02697450220125096

Chambre des Députés (1999): Compte rendus des séances publiques de la Chambre des Députés, 36e séance, 24 mars 1999: 1. Interpellation de M. Robert Garcia au sujet des friches industrielles et des perspectives de développement économique, social et écologique du bassin minier (Discussion générale) (C-1998-O-036-000).

Chambre des Députés (2001a): Rapport de la Commission des Finances et du Budget (6.7.2001). (47798) Projet de loi N° 4779/08 autorisant les interventions financières de l’Etat en faveur de la société de développement ayant pour objet la reconversion d’anciens 458 sites sidérurgiques (J-2000-O-1235).

Chambre des Députés (2001b): Compte rendus des séances publiques de la Chambre des Députés, 69e séance, 11 juillet 2001: 9. Projet de loi 4779 autorisant les interventions financières de l’Etat en faveur de la société de développement ayant pour objet la reconversion d’anciens sites sidérurgiques Rapport de la Commission des Finances et du Budget (C-2000 O 069 0009).

Chambre des Députés (2003a): Projet de loi N° 5152 autorisant l’Etat à acquérir des immeubles sur le site de Belval-Ouest 1) Arrêté Grand-Ducal de dépôt (14.5.2003) 2) Texte du projet de loi 3) Exposé des motifs 4) Commentaire des articles 5) Plans (J-2002-O-0634).

Chambre des Députés (2003b): Compte rendus des séances publiques de la Chambre des Députés, 8e séance, 12 novembre 2003: 5152 – Projet de loi autorisant l’État à acquérir des immeubles sur le site de Belval-Ouest Rapport de la Commission des Finances et du Budget (C-2003-O-008-0005).

Charrel, M. (2014): Face à la fin du secret bancaire, le Luxembourg chercheàdiversifiersonéconomie. In: Le Monde vom 16. Oktober 2014. https://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2014/10/16/face-a-la-fin-du-secret-bancaire-le-luxembourg-cherche-a-diversifier-son-economie_4507345_3234.html (05.12.2019).

Cicmil, S.; Williams, T.; Thomas, J.; Hodgson, D. (2006): Rethinking Project Management: Researching the actuality of projects. In: International Journal of Project Management 24, 8, 675-686. 10.1016/j.ijproman.2006.08.006

Dimitriou, H. T.; Ward, E. J.; Wright, P. G. (2013): Mega transport projects – Beyond ‘iron triangle’: Findings from the OMEGA research programme. In: Progress in Planning 86, 1-43. 10.1016/j.progress.2013.03.001

Dziomba, M. (2007): Städtebauliche Großprojekte der Urbanen Renaissance: Projektziele im Spannungsfeld zwischen öffentlicher Steuerung und Immobilienmarktmechanismen. In: disP – The Planning Review 43, 171, 12-24. 10.1080/02513625.2007.10556993

Dziomba, M.; Matuschewski, A. (2007): Großprojekte in der Stadtentwicklung – Konfliktbereiche und Erfolgsfaktoren. In: disP – The Planning Review 43 171, 5-11. 10.1080/02513625.2007.10556992

European Commission (2013): Urban development in the EU: 50 projects supported by the European Regional Development Fund during the 2007-13 period. o.O. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/50_projects/urban_dev_erdf50.pdf (17.11.2019).

Fainstein, S. S. (2008): Mega-projects in New York, London and Amsterdam. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 32, 4, 768-785. 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2008.00826.x

Flyvbjerg, B. (2014): What you Should Know About Megaprojects and Why: An Overview. In: Project Management Journal 45 2, 6-19. 10.1002/pmj.21409

Gold, J. R.; Gold, M. M. (2008): Olympic Cities: Regeneration, City Rebranding and Changing Urban Agendas. In: Geography Compass 2, 1, 300-318. 10.1111/j.1749-8198.2007.00080.x

Grabher, G.; Thiel, J. (Hrsg.) (2015): Self-Induced Shocks: Mega-Projects and Urban Development. Berlin. = Perspectives in Metropolitan Research 1.

Grin, J.; Rotmans, J.; Schot, J. (2010): Transitions to Sustainable Development: New Directions in the Study of Long Term Transformative Change. London.

Gualini, E.; Majoor, S. (2007): Innovative Practices in Large Urban Development Projects: Conflicting Frames in the Quest for “New Urbanity”. In: Planning Theory and Practice 8, 3, 297-318. 10.1080/14649350701514637

Hall, P. (1997): The university and the city. In: GeoJournal 41, 4, 301-309. 10.1023/A:1006806727397

Ibert, O. (2007): Megaprojekte und Partizipation: Konflikte zwischen handlungsorientierter und diskursiver Rationalität in der Stadtentwicklungsplanung. In: disP – The Planning Review 43, 171, 50-63. 10.1080/02513625.2007.10556996

Jones, P.; Evans, J. (2013): Urban Regeneration in the UK: Boom, Bust and Recovery. London.

Karadimitriou, N.; de Magalhães, C.; Verhage, R. (2013): Planning, Risk and Property Development: Urban regeneration in England, France and the Netherlands. London.

Klein, C.; Peltier, F. (2017): Regards sur la population au 1er janvier 2017. https://statistiques.public.lu/catalogue-publications/regards/2017/PDF-09-2017.pdf (20.11.2019).

Le Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (2003): Loi du 12 août 2003 portant création de l’Université du Luxembourg. http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2003/08/12/n17/jo(21.11.2019)

Lehrer, U.; Laidley, J. (2008): Old Mega-Projects Newly Packaged? Waterfront Redevelopment in Toronto. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 32, 4, 786-803. 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2008.00830.x

Leick, A. (2016): Kleines Land, große Projekte: Diskurse, Praktiken und soziale Welten im Entscheidungs- und Planungsprozess der Großvorhaben Belval und Kirchberg in Luxemburg. Dissertation an der Universität Luxemburg.

Luxinnovation (2017): Annual Report 2016. https://www.luxinnovation.lu/publication/2536/ (19.11.2019).

Mayer, H. (2007): What is the role of the university in creating a high-technology region? In: Journal of Urban Technology 14, 3, 33-58. 10.1080/10630730801924225

Maylor, H.; Brady, T.; Cooke-Davies, T.; Hodgson, D. (2006): From projectification to programmification. In: International Journal of Project Management 24, 8, 663-674. 10.1016/j. ijproman.2006.09.014

Meadowcroft, J.; Farrell, K. N.; Spangenberg, J. (2005): Developing a framework for sustainability governance in the European Union. In: International Journal of Sustainable Development 8, 1/2, 3-11. 10.1504/IJSD.2005.007371

Ministère de l’Intérieur; Ministère des Transports; Ministère des Bâtiments publics; Ministère de l’Environnement (2004): Ein Integratives Verkehrs- und Landesentwicklungskonzept. Luxemburg.

Moulaert, F.; Salin, E.; Werquin, T. (2001): Euralille: Large-Scale Urban Development and Social Polarization. In: European Urban and Regional Studies 8, 2, 145-160. 10.1177/096977640100800205

o.V. (2011a): La Cité des Sciences sous la loupe. In: Magazine. Le périodique du fonds belval 9, 3, 4-15.

o.V. (2011b): La Cité des Sciences – un projet en évolution. In: Magazine. Le périodique du fonds belval 9, 2, 4-25.

Packendorff, J.; Lindgren, M. (2014): Projectification and its consequences: Narrow and broad conceptualisations. In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 17, 1, 7-21. 10.4102/sajems.v17i1.807

Pfnür, A. (2011): Modernes Immobilienmanagement: Immobilieninvestment, Immobiliennutzung, Immobilienentwicklung und -betrieb. Berlin.

Pollack, J. (2007): The changing paradigms of project management. In: International Journal of Project Management 25 3, 266274. 10.1016/j.ijproman.2006.08.002

Ponzini, D. (2011): Large-scale development projects and star architecture in the absence of democratic politics: the case of Abu Dhabi, UAE. In: Cities 28, 3, 251-259. 10.1016/j. cities.2011.02.002

Raco, M. (2013): The new contractualism, the privatization of the welfare state, and the barriers to open source planning. In: Planning Practice and Research, 28, 1, 45-64. 10.1080/02697459.2012.694306

Raco, M.; Street, E.; Freire-Trigo, S. (2016): The new localism, anti-political development machines, and the role of planning consultants: Lessons from London’s South Bank. In: Territory, Politics, Governance 4, 2, 216-240. 10.1080/21622671.2015.1036912

Roy, A. (2005): Urban Informality: Toward an Epistemology of Planning. In: Journal of the American Planning Association 71, 2, 147-158. 10.1080/01944360508976689

Savini, F.; Majoor, S.; Salet, W. (2015): Dilemmas of planning: Intervention, regulation, and investment. In: Planning Theory 14, 3, 296-315.doi: 10.1177/1473095214531430

Savini, F.; Raco, M. (2019): The rise of a new urban technocracy. In: Raco, M.; Savini, F. (Hrsg.): Planning and knowledge: How new forms of technocracy are shaping contemporary cities. Bristol, 3-18.

Siebel, W. (2015): Mega-Events as Vehicles of Urban Policy. In: Grabher, G.; Thiel, J. (Hrsg.): Self-Induced Shocks: Mega-Projects and Urban Development. Berlin, 87-98.

Simons, K. (2003a): Politische Steuerung großer Projekte: Berlin Adlershof, Neue Mitte Oberhausen und Euralille im Vergleich. Opladen. = Stadtforschung aktuell 91. 10.1007/978-3-32297587-4

Simons, K. (2003b): Großprojekte in der Stadtentwicklungspolitik: zwischen Steuerung und Eigendynamik – das Beispiel Euralille. In: Altrock, U.; Güntner, S.; Huning, S.; Peters, D. (Hrsg.): Mega-Projekte und Stadtentwicklung. Berlin, 35-50. = Planungsrundschau 8.

Swyngedouw, E.; Moulaert, F.; Rodriguez, A. (2002): Neoliberal Urbanization in Europe: Large-Scale Urban Development Projects and the New Urban Policy. In: Antipode 34, 3, 542577. 10.1111/1467-8330.00254

Tarazona Vento, A. (2017): Mega-project meltdown: Post-politics, neoliberal urban regeneration and Valencia’s fiscal crisis. In: Urban Studies 54, 1, 68-84. 10.1177/0042098015625025

Taşan-Kok, T. (2010): Entrepreneurial governance: Challenges of large-scale property-led urban regeneration projects. In: Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 101, 2, 126-149. 10.1111/j.1467-9663.2009.00521.x

Tosics, I. (2011): Governance challenges and models for the cities of tomorrow. Budapest.

van Winden, W. (2011): Creating knowledge hotspots in the city: A handbook. Paris.

Williams, T. (2005): Assessing and moving on from the dominant project management discourse in the light of project overruns. In: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 52, 4, 497-508. 10.1109/TEM.2005.856572

Winter, M.; Smith, C.; Morris, P.; Cicmil, S. (2006): Directions for future research in project management: The main findings of a UK government-funded research network. In: International Journal of Project Management 24, 8, 638-649. 10.1016/j. ijproman.2006.08.009

Downloads

Published

2020-06-30

How to Cite

Leick, A., Hesse, M. and Becker, T. (2020) “From the “project within the project” to the ‘city within the city’? Governance and Management Problems in Large Urban Development Projects Using the Example of the Science City Belval, Luxembourg”, Raumforschung und Raumordnung | Spatial Research and Planning. DE, 78(3), pp. 249-265. doi: 10.2478/rara-2020-0009.

Issue

Section

Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)