Star architecture projects. The assessment of spatial economic effects by means of a spatial incidence analysis

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.2478/rara-2020-0029

Keywords:

Effekte, Stararchitektur, räumliche Inzidenzanalyse, Bilbao-Effekt, Stadterneuerung, Graz

Abstract

Following the inauguration of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, designed by the star architect Frank Gehry, numerous cities have developed star architecture projects that try to emulate the ‘Bilbao Effect’ in the hope of triggering positive impacts for tourism and socio-economic development. However, as many projects do not achieve the set goals, their role as catalysts for urban development is debatable. We argue that the temporal and spatial economic dimension of the effects of star architecture projects – which are hardly discussed in existing literature – is crucial to assess the contribution of such projects for urban regeneration. The Kunsthaus Graz in Austria serves as a case study where we apply and modify the approach of the ‘spatial incidence analysis’ to assess the socioeconomic and intertemporal effects of a publicly funded, star architecture project. The spatial incidence analysis is closely related to the cost-benefit analysis, but takes into consideration wider aspects of the spatial distribution and intertemporal development of three dimensions of effects: payment flows, goods and services, and utility. We identify the following key findings by applying a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods: the operation of the Kunsthaus Graz provides an inflow of purchasing power for the municipality of Graz; the Kunsthaus Graz has positive, long-term effects in the fields of tourism marketing, civic pride and identification, creative industries and urban regeneration; the effects of the Kunsthaus Graz are spatially concentrated in the municipality of Graz.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahlfeldt, G.M.; Mastro, A. (2012): Valuing Iconic Design: Frank Lloyd Wright Architecture in Oak Park, Illinois. In: Housing Studies 27, 8, 1079-1099. doi: 10.1080/02673037.2012.728575

Alaily-Mattar, N.; Bartmanski, D.; Dreher, J.; Koch, M.; Löw, M.; Pape, T.; Thierstein, A. (2018): Situating architectural performance: ‘Star architecture’ and its roles in repositioning the cities of Graz, Lucerne and Wolfsburg. In: European Planning Studies 26, 9, 1874-1900. doi: 10.1080/09654313.2018.1465896

Alaily-Mattar, N.; Büren, N.; Thierstein, A. (2019): Transforming the Media Exposure of a City through Star Architecture Projects? In: disP – The Planning Review 55, 2, 36-48. doi: 10.1080/02513625.2019.1630187

Alaily-Mattar, N.; Dreher, J.; Thierstein, A. (2018): Repositioning cities through star architecture: how does it work? In: Journal of Urban Design 23, 2, 169-192. 10.1080/13574809.2017.1408401

Alaily-Mattar, N.; Dreher, J.; Wenner, F.; Thierstein, A. (2018): Public real estate development projects and urban transformation: the case of flagship projects. In: Squires, G.; Heurkens E.; Peiser, R. (eds): Routledge Companion to Real Estate Development. Abingdon, 43-55.

Arandelovic, B. (2015): Graz, UNESCO City of Design and Historical Heritage. In: Cities 43, 78-91. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2014.11.014

Barnert, M.; Bernard, R.; Obernosterer, U.; Rapp, C.; Rosegger, R. (2006): Integriertes Kulturstättenkonzept für Graz. Graz.

Baudelle, G. (2015): The New Louvre in Lens: A Regionally Embedded National Project. In: European Planning Studies 23, 8, 1476-1493. doi: 10.1080/09654313.2013.819075

Baus, U. (2015). Stars und „Starchitecture “(2). http://www.frei04-publizistik.de/data/webserver/download/1549_Starchitecture.pdf (04.09.2020).

BMVBS – Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (ed.) (2011): Stadtentwicklung und Image. Städtebauliche Großprojekte in Metropolräumen. Berlin. = Forschungen 150.

Bryan, J.; Munday, M.; Bevins, R. (2012): Developing a Framework for Assessing the Socioeconomic Impacts of Museums: The Regional Value of the ‘Flexible Museum’. In: Urban Studies 49, 1, 133-151. doi: 10.1177/0042098010396242

Dienes, G. (2009): Vor der Stadt. Eine Geschichte der Grazer Bezirke Lend und Gries. Von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. In: Murlasits, E.; Prasenc, G.; Reisinger, N. (eds.): Gries. Lend. Geschichten, Räume, Identitäten. Graz, 11-18.

Dreher, J.; Alaily-Mattar, N.; Thierstein, A. (2020a): The Power of Star Architecture and Iconic Design: Kunsthaus Graz, Austria. In: Lindsay, G. (ed.): Contemporary Museum Architecture and Design. Theory and Practice of Place. New York, 23-42.

Dreher, J.; Alaily-Mattar, N.; Thierstein, A. (2020b): The multifarious effects of star architecture: The case of the Kunsthaus Graz. In: Alaily-Mattar, N.; Ponzini, D.; Thierstein, A. (eds.): About Star Architecture. Cham, 153-168.

Dreyer, J. (2016): China’s Attempt at the ‘Bilbao Effect’. In: Bloomberg City Lab. https://www.citylab.com/design/2016/05/chinas-rustbelt-tries-for-the-bilbao-effect/484508/ (04.09.2020).

Evans, G. (2005): Measure for Measure: Evaluating the Evidence of Culture’s Contribution to Regeneration. In: Urban Studies 42, 5-6, 959-983. doi: 10.1080/00420980500107102

Fernández-Galiano, L. (2005): Spectacle and its Discontents or the Elusive Joys of Architainment. In: Saunders, W.S. (ed.): Commodification and Spectacle in Architecture: A Harvard Design Magazine Reader. Minneapolis, 1-7.

Fischer, G.; Wilhelm, B. (2001): Die Universität St. Gallen als Wirtschafts- und Standortfaktor. Ergebnisse einer regionalen Inzidenzanalyse. Bern.

Foster, H. (2008): Image Building. In: Vidler, A. (ed.): Architecture between spectacle and use. Williamstown, 164-179.

Franklin, A. (2016): Journeys to the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao: Towards a revised Bilbao Effect. In: Annals of Tourism Research 59, 79-92. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2016.04.001

Frey, R.L. (1984): Die Inzidenzanalyse: Ansatz und Probleme der Erfassung von Spillovers. In: Frey, R.L.; Brugger, E.A. (eds.): Infrastruktur, Spillovers und Regionalpolitik. Methode und praktische Anwendung der Inzidenzanalyse in der Schweiz. Diessenhofen, 37-55.

Frey, R.L. (1990): Städtewachstum, Städtewandel. Eine ökonomische Analyse der schweizerischen Agglomerationen. Basel.

Frey, R.L.; Häusel, U. (1982): Infrastruktur, Spillovers und regionale Disparitäten. Zwischenbericht: Fragestellung und methodische Grundlagen. Bern.

Fritz, O.; Pointner, W.; Steiner, M.; Streicher, G.; Zakarias, G. (2001): Analyse regionalwirtschaftlicher Effekte der Errichtung und Betreibung des Grazer Kunsthauses. Graz.

Girgert, W. (2011): Der Bilbao-Defekt. https://www.germanarchitects.com/ca/pages/page_item/23_11_bilbao(04.09.2020)

Gómez, M.V. (1998): Reflective Images: The Case of Urban Regeneration in Glasgow and Bilbao. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 22, 1, 106-121. doi: 10.1111/1468-2427.00126

González, S. (2011): Bilbao and Barcelona ‘in Motion’. How Urban Regeneration ‘Models’ Travel and Mutate in the Global Flows of Policy Tourism. In: Urban Studies 48, 7, 1397-1418. doi: 10.1177/0042098010374510

Gravari-Barbas, M.; Renard-Delautre, C. (eds.) (2015): Starchitecture(s): Celebrity Architects and Urban Space. Paris.

Grohmann, M. (2007): Besucherbefragung Kunsthaus Graz. Krems (unpublished).

Haarich, S.N.; Plaza, B. (2010): Das Guggenheim-Museum von Bilbao als Symbol für erfolgreichen Wandel – Legende und Wirklichkeit. In: Altrock, U.; Huning, S.; Kuder, T.; Nuissl, H.; Peters, D. (eds.): Symbolische Orte. Planerische (De-) Konstruktionen. Berlin, 150-166. = Planungsrundschau 19.

Heidenreich, M. (2015): The New Museum Folkwang in Essen. A Contribution to the Cultural and Economic Regeneration of the Ruhr Area? In: European Planning Studies 23, 8, 1529-1547. doi: 10.1080/09654313.2013.817545

Heidenreich, M.; Plaza, B. (2015): Renewal through Culture? The Role of Museums in the Renewal of Industrial Regions in Europe. In: European Planning Studies 23, 8, 1441-1455. doi: 10.1080/09654313.2013.817544

HLW Schrödinger – Höhere Bundeslehranstalt für wirtschaftliche Berufe (2014): Steig ein – red‘ mit! Zum Beispiel Kunsthaus. Survey. Graz (unpublished).

Jasmand, S.; Maennig, W. (2008): Regional Income and Employment Effects of the 1972 Munich Summer Olympic Games. In: Regional Studies 42, 7, 991-1002. doi: 10.1080/00343400701654095

Jencks, C. (2004): The Truth About Icons. In: The Architects’ Journal. 9 September 2004. https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/home/the-truth-about-icons/139749.article (04.09.2020).

Jencks, C. (2006): The iconic building is here to stay. In: City 10, 1, 3-20. doi: 10.1080/13604810600594605

Jencks, C. (2011): The Story of Post-Modernism: Five Decades of the Ironic, Iconic and Critical in Architecture. Chichester.

Julian, D.A. (1997): The Utilization of the Logic Model as a System Level Planning and Evaluation Device. In: Evaluation and Program Planning 20, 3, 251-257. doi: 10.1016/S0149-7189(97)00002-5

Klingmann, A. (2007): Beyond Bilbao. Brandscapes: Architecture in the Experience Economy. Boston.

Klute, H. (2003): Graz feiert sich als Europäische Kulturhauptstadt 2003. Flucht aus Pensionopolis. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung vom 8. April 2003, V2/1.

Krauss, G. (2015): The Creation of a Second Centre Pompidou in Metz: Social Embedding of a New Regional Cultural Facility and Formation of a Strategic Action Field. In: European Planning Studies 23, 8, 1494-1510. doi: 10.1080/09654313.2013.817542

Kubinzky, K.A. (2009): Die Murvorstadt: Lend und Gries. Die Geschichte zweier Grazer Stadtbezirke von der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis in die Gegenwart. In: Murlasits, E.; Prasenc, G.; Reisinger, N. (eds.): Gries. Lend. Geschichten, Räume, Identitäten. Graz, 19-24.

Landesrechnungshof Steiermark (2008): Landesmuseum Joanneum GmbH. Berichtzahl LRH 20 J 3/2008-55. Graz.

Lazzeretti, L.; Capone, F. (2015): Museums as Societal Engine for Urban Renewal. The Event Strategy of the Museum of Natural History in Florence. In: European Planning Studies 23, 8, 1548-1567. doi: 10.1080/09654313.2013.819073

Leitner, E. (2012): Stadtbaukultur durch Kulturhauptstadt. Zur Rolle stadträumlicher und baukultureller Aspekte im Rahmen der Initiative Kulturhauptstadt Europas. Dissertation, Technische Universität Wien.

McLaughlin, J.A.; Jordan, G.B. (1999): Logic Models: A Tool for Telling Your Program’s Performance Story. In: Evaluation and Program Planning 22, 1, 65-72. doi: 10.1016/S0149-7189(98)00042-1

Musgrave, R.A.; Musgrave, P.B.; Kullmer, L. (1977): Die öffentlichen Finanzen in Theorie und Praxis. Tübingen.

Musgrave, R.A. (1987): Merit Goods. In: Eatwell, J.; Milgate, M.; Newman, P. (eds.): The New Palgrave. A Dictionary of Economics. London, 451-453.

Ockman, J.; Frausto, S. (eds.) (2005): Architourism: authentic, escapist, exotic, spectacular. München.

Passegger, N. (2006): Imageanalyse und kommunikationspolitische Auswirkungen Kunsthaus Graz. Survey. Graz (unpublishd).

Patterson, M. (2012): The Role of the Public Institution in Iconic Architectural Development. In: Urban Studies 49, 15, 32893305. doi: 10.1177/0042098012443862

Plaza, B. (2000): Evaluating the influence of a large cultural artifact in the attraction of tourism. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao case. In: Urban Affairs Review 36, 2, 264-274. doi: 10.1177/10780870022184859

Plaza, B. (2006): The Return on Investment of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30, 2, 452-467. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2006.00672.x

Plaza, B. (2008): On Some Challenges and Conditions for the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao to be an Effective Economic Re-activator. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 32, 2, 506-517. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2008.00796.x

Plaza, B. (2013): Der „Bilbao-Effekt“. In: Wang, W. (ed.): Kultur: Stadt. Berlin, 62-65.

Plaza, B.; Gonzáles-Casimiro, P.; Moral-Zuazo, P.; Waldron, C. (2015): Culture-led city brands as economic engines: theory and empirics. In: Annals of Regional Sciences 54, 1, 179-196. doi: 10.1007/s00168-014-0650-0

Plaza, B.; Haarich, S.N. (2015): The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao: Between Regional Embeddedness and Global Networking. In: European Planning Studies 23, 8, 1456-1475. doi: 10.1080/09654313.2013.817543

Plaza, B.; Tironi, M.; Haarich, S.N. (2009): Bilbao’s Art Scene and the “Guggenheim effect” Revisited. In: European Planning Studies 17, 11, 1711-1729. doi: 10.1080/09654310903230806

Ponzini, D. (2011): Large scale development projects and star architecture in the absence of democratic politics: The case of Abu Dhabi, UAE. In: Cities 28, 3, 251-259. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2011.02.002

Ponzini, D.; Nastasi, M. (2016): Starchitecture. Scenes, Actors and Spectacles in Contemporary Cities. New York.

Rius-Ulldemolins, J.; Hernandez Marti, G.M.; Torres, F. (2015): Urban Development and Cultural Policy “White Elephants”: Barcelona and Valencia. In: European Planning Studies 24, 1, 61-75. doi: 10.1080/09654313.2015.1075965

Rodríguez, A.; Martínez, E.; Guenaga, G. (2001): Uneven Redevelopment. New Urban Policies and Socio-Spatial Fragmentation in Metropolitan Bilbao. In: European Urban and Regional Studies 8, 2, 161-178. doi: 10.1177/096977640100800206

Scherer, R. (2002): Die räumliche Inzidenz des Lucerne Festivals. In: Informationen zur Raumentwicklung 4/5, 271-275.

Scherer, R.; Strauf, S.; Riser, A.; Gutjahr, M. (2012): Regionalwirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Kultur- und Kongresszentrums Luzern. St. Gallen.

Schneider, S. (2012): Blob-Architektur für das 21. Jahrhundert. Neues Paradigma oder Relaunch einer ehrwürdigen Tradition? Marburg.

Sedlmeier, F. (2016): Das Kunsthaus Graz und seine Wirkungskraft. Eine Gewerbeanalyse. Student work at the Chair of Urban Development, Technical University of Munich (unpublished).

Sklair, L. (2006): Iconic architecture and capitalist globalization. In: City 10, 1, 21-47. doi: 10.1080/13604810600594613

Smith, A.; von Krogh Strand, I. (2011): Oslo’s new Opera House: Cultural flagship, regeneration tool or destination icon? In: European Urban and Regional Studies 18, 1, 93-110. doi: 10.1177/0969776410382595

Smith, T. (2008): Spectacle Architecture before and after the Aftermath: Situating the Sydney Experience. In: Vidler, A. (ed.): Architecture between spectacle and use. Williamstown, 3-24.

Thierstein, A.; Alaily-Mattar, N.; Dreher, J. (2020): Star architecture’s interplays and effects on cities. In: Alaily-Mattar, N.; Ponzini, D.; Thierstein, A. (eds.): About Star Architecture. Cham, 45-54.

Vicario, L.; Martínez Monje, P.M. (2003): Another ‘Guggenheim Effect’? The Generation of a Potentially Gentrifiable Neighbourhood in Bilbao. In: Urban Studies 40, 12, 23832400. doi: 10.1080/0042098032000136129

Weidenfeld, A. (2010): Iconicity and flagshipness of tourist attractions. In: Annals of Tourism Research 37, 3, 851-854. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2010.02.007

Weiss, C.H. (1997): How Can Theory-Based Evaluation Make Greater Headway? In: Evaluation Review 21, 4, 501-524. doi: 10.1177/0193841X9702100405

Zakarias, G.; Gertzmacher, N.; Gruber, M.; Kurzmann, R.; Steiner, M.; Streicher, G. (2002): Kunst und Wirtschaft Graz 2003. Kulturhauptstadt Europas. Eine Analyse der wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen. Graz. = InTeReg Research Report 04-2002.

Zimmermann, H.; Henke, K.D. (2001): Finanzwissenschaft. München.

Downloads

Published

2020-10-31

Issue

Section

Research Article

How to Cite

1.
Dreher J, Alaily-Mattar N, Thierstein A. Star architecture projects. The assessment of spatial economic effects by means of a spatial incidence analysis. RuR [Internet]. 2020 Oct. 31 [cited 2024 Jul. 22];78(5):439-53. Available from: https://rur.oekom.de/index.php/rur/article/view/246

Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)