Leaving, Staying in and Returning to the Hometown

Couple's residential location choices at the time of family formation

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14512/rur.132

Keywords:

residential choice, residential biography, intergenerational family ties, return migration, family formation

Abstract

Couples' residential decisions are based on a large variety of factors including housing preferences, family and other social ties, socialisation and residential biography (e.g. earlier experience in the life course) and environmental factors (e.g. housing market, labour market). This study examines, firstly, to what extent people stay in, return to or leave their hometown (referred to as ‘migration type’). We refer to the hometown as the place where most of childhood and adolescence is spent. Secondly, we study which conditions shape a person’s migration type. We mainly focus on variables capturing elements of the residential biography and both partners’ family ties and family socialisation. We focus on the residential choices made at the time of family formation, i.e. when the first child is born. We employ multinomial regression modelling and cross-tabulations, based on two generations in a sample of families who mostly live in the wider Ruhr area, born around 1931 (parents) and 1957 (adult children). We find that migration type is significantly affected by a combination of both partners' place of origin, both partners' parents' places of residence, the number of previous moves, level of education and hometown population size. We conclude that complex patterns of experience made over the life course, socialisation and gendered patterns are at work. These mechanisms should be kept in mind when policymakers develop strategies to attract (return) migrants.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abraham, M.; Auspurg, K.; Hinz, T. (2010): Migration Decisions Within Dual-Earner Partnerships: A Test of Bargaining Theory. In: Journal of Marriage and Family 72, 4, 876–892. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00736.x

Albrecht, J.; Döring, L.; Holz-Rau, C.; Scheiner, J. (2019): Residential Location Choices of Couples Considering both Partners’ Residential Biographies and Family Ties. In: Comparative Population Studies 44, 107–136. https://doi.org/10.12765/CPoS-2019-12en

Arlot, S.; Celisse, A. (2010): A survey of cross-validation procedures for model selection. In: Statistics Surveys 4, 40–79. https://doi.org/10.1214/09-SS054

Backhaus, K.; Erichson, B.; Plinke, W.; Weiber, R. (2016): Multivariate Analysemethoden. Eine anwendungsorientierte Einführung. Berlin.

Bailey, A.J.; Blake, M.K.; Cooke, T.J. (2004): Migration, care, and the linked lives of dual-earner households. In: Environment and Planning A 36, 9, 1617–1632. https://doi.org/10.1068/a36198

Beer, A.; Faulkner, D. (2009): 21st century housing careers and Australia’s housing future. Melbourne. = AHURI Final Report 128.

Bielby, W.T.; Bielby, D.D. (1992): I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Reluctance to Relocate for a Better Job. In: American Journal of Sociology 97, 5, 1241–1267. https://doi.org/10.1086/229901

Birg, H.; Flöthmann, E.-J.; Reiter, I. (1991): Biographische Theorie der demographischen Reproduktion. Frankfurt am Main. = Forschungsberichte des Instituts für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik IBS, Universität Bielefeld 18.

Blaauboer, M. (2011): The Impact of Childhood Experiences and Family Members outside the Household on Residential Environment Choices. In: Urban Studies 48, 8, 1635–1650. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098010377473

Blaauboer, M.; Mulder, C.H.; Zorlu, A. (2011): Distances between Couples and the Man’s and Woman’s Parents. In: Population, Space and Place 17, 5, 597–610. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.648

Bonaiuto, M.; Aiello, A.; Perugini, M.; Bonnes, M.; Ercolani, A.P. (1999): Multidimensional Perception of Residential Environment Quality and Neighbourhood Attachment in the Urban Environment. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 19, 4, 331–352. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1999.0138

Bordone, V. (2009): Contact and Proximity of Older People to their Adult Children: A Comparison between Italy and Sweden. In: Population, Space and Place 15, 4, 359–380. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.559

Brown, B.; Perkins, D.D.; Brown, G. (2003): Place attachment in a revitalizing neighborhood: Individual and block levels of analysis. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 23, 3, 259–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00117‑2

Chearbhaill, R.N. (2016): ‘You’ll Have to Start Learning Irish Now’: Irish Return Migration and the Return of the Second Generation to the Connemara Gaeltacht Region. In: Nadler, R.; Kovács, Z.; Glorius, B.; Lang, T. (eds.): Return Migration and Regional Development in Europe. London, 195–212. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-57509-8

Chudnovskaya, M.; Kolk, M. (2017): Educational Expansion and Intergenerational Proximity in Sweden. In: Population, Space and Place 23, 1, e1973. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1973

Clark, W.A.V.; Duque-Calvache, R.; Palomares-Linares, I. (2017): Place Attachment and the Decision to Stay in the Neighbourhood. In: Population, Space and Place 23, 2, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2001

Cooke, T.J. (2008): Gender role beliefs and family migration. In: Population, Space and Place 14, 3, 163–175. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.485

Coulter, R.; van Ham, M.; Findlay, A.M. (2016): Re-thinking residential mobility: Linking lives through time and space. In: Progress in Human Geography 40, 3, 352–374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132515575417

DaVanzo, J. (1981): Repeat Migration, Information Costs, and Location-Specific Capital. In: Population and Environment 4, 1, 45–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01362575

DaVanzo, J. (1983): Repeat Migration in the United States: Who Moves Back and Who Moves On? In: The Review of Economics and Statistics 65, 4, 552–559. https://doi.org/10.2307/1935923

de Bruijn, B.J. (1999): Foundations of Demographic Theory. Choice, Process, Context. Amsterdam.

de Haas, H.; Fokkema, T. (2011): The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions. In: Demographic Research 25, 755–782. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2011.25.24

Döring, L.; Albrecht, J.; Holz-Rau, C. (2014): Generationsübergreifende Mobilitätsbiografien – Soziodemografische Analyse der Erhebung. Dortmund. = Arbeitspapiere des Fachgebiets Verkehrswesen und Verkehrsplanung 30.

Döring, L.; Kroesen, M.; Holz-Rau, C. (2019): The role of parents’ mobility behavior for dynamics in car availability and commute mode use. In: Transportation 46, 3, 957–994. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-017-9823-x

Dustmann, C.; Fadlon, I.; Weiss, Y. (2011): Return migration, human capital accumulation and the brain drain. In: Journal of Development Economics 95, 1, 58–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2010.04.006

Elder, G.H. (1994): Time, Human Agency, and Social Change: Perspectives on the Life Course. In: Social Psychology Quarterly 57, 1, 4–15. https://doi.org/10.2307/2786971

Elder, G.H.; Johnson, M.K.; Crosnoe, R. (2003): The Emergence and Development of Life Course Theory. In: Mortimer, J.T.; Shanahan, M.J. (eds.): Handbook of the Life Course. New York, 3–19.

Feijten, P. (2005): Life events and the housing career. A retrospective analysis of timed effects. Delft.

Feijten, P.; Hooimeijer, P.; Mulder, C.H. (2008): Residential Experience and Residential Environment Choice over the Life-course. In: Urban Studies 45, 1, 141–162. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098007085105

Feldhaus, M.; Heintz-Martin, V. (2015): Long-term effects of parental separation: Impacts of parental separation during childhood on the timing and the risk of cohabitation, marriage, and divorce in adulthood. In: Advances in Life Course Research 26, 22–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2015.07.003

Fessler, P.; Schneebaum, A. (2012): Gender and Educational Attainment Across Generations in Austria. In: Feminist Economics 18, 1, 161–188. https://doi.org/10.1080/13545701.2012.657661

Friedrich, K.; Schultz, A. (eds.) (2008): Brain drain oder brain circulation? Konsequenzen und Perspektiven der Ost-West-Migration. Leipzig. = forum ifl 8.

Fuchs, M.; Nadler, R.; Roth, D.; Theuer, S.; Weyh, A. (2017): Rückwanderung von Erwerbspersonen – aktuelle Deutschlandzahlen im regionalen Vergleich. In: Nationalatlas aktuell 11, 4. http://aktuell.nationalatlas.de/wp-content/uploads/17_04_Rueckwanderung.pdf

Fuchs, M.; Weyh, A. (2016): Rückwanderung von Beschäftigten nach Ostdeutschland: Räumliche Muster und soziodemographische Strukturen. In: ifo Dresden berichtet 23, 3, 19–27.

Glorius, B.; Matuschewski, A. (2009): Rückwanderung im internationalen Kontext: Forschungsansätze und -perspektiven. In: Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft 34, 3‑4, 203–225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12523-010-0043-0

Helderman, A.; Mulder, C. (2007): Intergenerational Transmission of Homeownership: The Roles of Gifts and Continuities in Housing Market Characteristics. In: Urban Studies 44, 2, 231–247. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980601075018

Hernández, B.; Hidalgo, M.C.; Salazar-Laplace, M.E.; Hess, S. (2007): Place attachment and place identity in natives and non-natives. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 27, 4, 310–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.06.003

Hidalgo, M.C.; Hernández, B. (2001): Place Attachment: Conceptual and Empirical Questions. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 21, 3, 273–281. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2001.0221

Holz-Rau, C.; Scheiner, J. (2015): Mobilitätsbiografien und Mobilitätssozialisation: Neue Zugänge zu einem alten Thema. In: Scheiner, J.; Holz-Rau, C. (eds.): Räumliche Mobilität und Lebenslauf. Wiesbaden, 3–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-07546-0_1

Hörschelmann, K. (2011): Theorising life transitions: geographical perspectives. In: Area 43, 4, 378–383. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2011.01056.x

Isengard, B. (2013): „Der Apfel lebt nicht weit vom Stamm“: Wohnentfernungen zwischen Eltern und ihren erwachsenen Kindern in Europa. In: Comparative Population Studies 38, 2, 263–289. https://doi.org/10.4232/10.CPoS-2013-09de

Jenkins, S.P.; Maynard, A.K. (1983): Intergenerational Continuities in Housing. In: Urban Studies 20, 4, 431–438. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420988320080791

Jones, G.; Jamieson, L. (1997): Young People in Rural Scotland: Getting Out and Staying On. Edinburgh.

Junge, V.; Revilla Diez, J.; Schätzl, L. (2015): Determinants and Consequences of Internal Return Migration in Thailand and Vietnam. In: World Development 71, 94–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.11.007

Jürges, H. (2005): The Geographic Mobility of Dual-Earner Couples: Does Gender Ideology Matter? Berlin. = DIW Discussion Papers 474.

Kley, S. (2009): Migration im Lebensverlauf. Der Einfluss von Lebensbedingungen und Lebenslaufereignissen auf den Wohnortwechsel. Wiesbaden.

Kolk, M. (2017): A Life-Course Analysis of Geographical Distance to Siblings, Parents, and Grandparents in Sweden. In: Population, Space and Place 23, 3, e2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2020

Kranepuhl, S. (2008): Regionale Identität als Instrument der Regionalentwicklung. Identitätsstiftende Maßnahmen von Politik und Verwaltung. In: Friedrich, K.; Schultz, A. (eds.): Brain drain oder brain circulation? Konsequenzen und Perspektiven der Ost-West-Migration. Leipzig, 113–122. = forum ifl 8.

Kulu, H. (2008): Fertility and Spatial Mobility in the Life Course: Evidence from Austria. In: Environment and Planning A 40, 3, 632–652. https://doi.org/10.1068/a3914

Kunuroglu, F.; Yagmur, K.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Kroon, S. (2015): Consequences of Turkish return migration from Western Europe. In: International Journal of Intercultural Relations 49, 198–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.10.004

Lawton, L.; Silverstein, M.; Bengtson, V. (1994): Affection, Social Contact, and Geographic Distance Between Adult Children and Their Parents. In: Journal of Marriage and Family 56, 1, 57–68. https://doi.org/10.2307/352701

Lengerer, A. (2001): Wo die Liebe hinfällt – ein Beitrag zur ‚Geographie‘ der Partnerwahl. In: Klein, T. (ed.): Partnerwahl und Heiratsmuster. Soziostrukturelle Voraussetzungen der Liebe. Wiesbaden, 133–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-663-11009-5_6

Lersch, P.M. (2014): Geburten und die Wohnraumversorgung von Familien: Anpassungen der Wohnung im zeitlichen Verlauf. In: Zeitschrift für Soziologie 43, 2, 131–149. https://doi.org/10.1515/zfsoz-2014-0205

Lersch, P.M.; Luijkx, R. (2015): Intergenerational transmission of homeownership in Europe: Revisiting the socialisation hypothesis. In: Social Science Research 49, 327–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.08.010

Lewicka, M. (2010): What makes neighborhood different from home and city? Effects of place scale on place attachment. In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 30, 1, 35–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.05.004

Lewicka, M. (2011): Place attachment. How far have we come in the last 40 years? In: Journal of Environmental Psychology 31, 3, 207–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.10.001

Liefbroer, A.C.; Elzinga, C.H. (2012): Intergenerational transmission of behavioural patterns: How similar are parents’ and children’s demographic trajectories? In: Advances in Life Course Research 17, 1, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2012.01.002

Lien, S.-c. (2017): Wohnstandort und räumliche Mobilität im Kontext steigender Frauenerwerbstätigkeit. Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-15858-3

Løken, K.V.; Lommerud, K.E.; Lundberg, S. (2013): Your Place or Mine? On the Residence Choice of Young Couples in Norway. In: Demography 50, 1, 285–310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-012-0142-8

Low, S.M.; Altman, I. (1992): Place Attachment. A Conceptual Inquiry. In: Altman, I.; Low, S.M. (eds.): Place Attachment. Boston, 1–12. = Human Behavior and Environment 12. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-8753-4_1

Lundholm, E. (2015): Migration and Regional Differences in Access to Local Family Networks Among 60-year olds in Sweden. In: Journal of Population Ageing 8, 3, 173–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12062-015-9117-z

Mader, K.; Schneebaum, A. (2013): Zur geschlechtsspezifischen Intrahaushaltsverteilung von Entscheidungsmacht in Europa. In: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 39,3, 361–403.

Malmberg, G.; Pettersson, A. (2007): Distance to elderly parents. Analyses of Swedish register data. In: Demographic Research 17, 679–704. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2007.17.23

Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H. (2007): Geographical distances between adult children and their parents in the Netherlands. In: Demographic Research 17, 655–678. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2007.17.22

Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H. (2008): Family events and the residential mobility of couples. In: Environment and Planning A 40, 11, 2770–2790. https://doi.org/10.1068/a39374

Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H.; Zorlu, A. (2008): Distance to Parents and Geographical Mobility. In: Population, Space and Place 14, 4, 327–345. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.509

Mincer, J. (1978): Family Migration Decisions. In: Journal of Political Economy 86, 5, 749–773. https://doi.org/10.1086/260710

Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P. (2002): Leaving home in the Netherlands: Timing and first housing. In: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 17, 3, 237–268. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020264417389

Mulder, C.H.; van der Meer, M.J. (2009): Geographical Distances and Support from Family Members. In: Population, Space and Place 15, 4, 381–399. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.557

Myers, S.M. (1999): Residential Mobility as a Way of Life: Evidence of Intergenerational Similarities. In: Journal of Marriage and Family 61, 4, 871–880. https://doi.org/10.2307/354009

Nadler, R.; Kovács, Z.; Glorius, B.; Lang, T. (eds.) (2016): Return Migration and Regional Development in Europe. London. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-57509-8

Nadler, R.; Lang, T.; Glorius, B.; Kovács, Z. (2016): Conclusions: Current and Future Perspectives on Return Migration and Regional Development in Europe. In: Nadler, R.; Kovács, Z.; Glorius, B.; Lang, T. (eds.): Return Migration and Regional Development in Europe. London, 359–376. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-57509-8

Piracha, M.; Vadean, F. (2010): Return Migration and Occupational Choice: Evidence from Albania. In: World Development 38, 8, 1141–1155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.12.015

Rogerson, P.A.; Burr, J.A.; Lin, G. (1997): Changes in Geographic Proximity between Parents and their Adult Children. In: International Journal of Population Geography 3, 2, 121–136. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1220(199706)3:2%3C121::AID-IJPG60%3E3.0.CO;2‑I

Scheiner, J.; Sicks, K.; Holz-Rau, C. (2014): Generationsübergreifende Mobilitätsbiografien – Dokumentation der Datengrundlage. Dortmund. = Arbeitspapiere des Fachgebiets Verkehrswesen und Verkehrsplanung 29.

Semyonov, M.; Lewin-Epstein, N. (2001): The Impact of Parental Transfers on Living Standards of Married Children. In: Social Indicators Research 54, 2, 115–137. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011081529592

Seyfarth, E.; Osterhage, F.; Scheiner, J. (2021): Auch dauerhaft urban? Empirische Untersuchung kurz- und langfristiger Wohnumfeldwünsche junger Erwachsener als Beitrag zur Reurbanisierungsdebatte. In: Raumforschung und Raumordnung | Spatial Research and Planning 79, 5, 453–469. https://doi.org/10.14512/rur.88

Smits, J.; Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P. (2003): Changing Gender Roles, Shifting Power Balance and Long-distance Migration of Couples. In: Urban Studies 40, 3, 603–613. https://doi.org/10.1080/0042098032000053941

Snee, R.D. (1977): Validation of Regression Models: Methods and Examples. In: Technometrics 19, 4, 415–428. https://doi.org/10.1080/00401706.1977.10489581

Sussman, N.M. (2002): Testing the cultural identity model of the cultural transition cycle: sojourners return home. In: International Journal of Intercultural Relations 26, 4, 391–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(02)00013‑5

Thomas, M.; Stillwell, J.; Gould, M. (2016): Modelling Mover/Stayer Characteristics across the Life Course Using a Large Commercial Sample. In: Population, Space and Place 22, 6, 584–598. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1943

Thornton, A. (1991): Influence of the Marital History of Parents on the Marital and Cohabitational Experiences of Children. In: American Journal of Sociology 96, 4, 868–894.

Tuan, Y.-F. (1975): Place: An Experiential Perspective. In: Geographical Review 65, 2, 151–165. https://doi.org/10.2307/213970

Vadean, F.P.; Piracha, M. (2009): Circular Migration or Permanent Return: What Determines Different Forms of Migration? Bonn. = IZA-Discussion Paper 4287.

van Dam, F.; Heins, S.; Elbersen, B.S. (2002): Lay discourses of the rural and stated and revealed preferences for rural living. Some evidence of the existence of a rural idyll in the Netherlands. In: Journal of Rural Studies 18, 4, 461–476. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0743-0167(02)00035‑9

van den Broek, T.; Dykstra, P.A.; Schenk, N. (2014): Regional Economic Performance and Distance Between Parents and Their Employed Children – A Multilevel Analysis. In: Population, Space and Place 20, 3, 222–234. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1757

van der Pers, M.; Kibele, E.U.B.; Mulder, C.H. (2014): Intergenerational proximity and the residential relocation of older people to care institutions and elsewhere. In: Ageing and Society 35, 7, 1429–1456. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X14000300

von Blanckenburg, C. (2016): History, Memory and Remigration: Familial Cultures of Memory as a Background to the Return of Entrepreneurs to East Germany. In: Nadler, R.; Kovács, Z.; Glorius, B.; Lang, T. (eds.): Return Migration and Regional Development in Europe. London, 261–289. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-57509-8

Wagner, M. (1989): Räumliche Mobilität im Lebensverlauf. Eine empirische Untersuchung sozialer Bedingungen der Migration. Stuttgart.

Wiest, K.; Leibert, T. (2013): Wanderungsmuster junger Frauen im ländlichen Sachsen-Anhalt – Implikationen für zielgruppenorientierte Regionalentwicklungsstrategien. In: Raumforschung und Raumordnung 71, 6, 455–469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13147-013-0257-4

Willekens, F.J. (1991): Understanding the Interdependence between Parallel Careers. In: Siegers, J.J.; de Jong-Gierveld, J.; van Imhoff, E. (eds.): Female Labour Market Behaviour and Fertility. A Rational-Choice Approach. Berlin, 11–31.

Yahirun, J.J. (2014): Take Me “Home”: Return Migration among Germany’s Older Immigrants. In: International Migration 52, 4, 231–254. https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.12009

Published

Issue publication date 2022-08-31 (version 2)
Published online first 2022-02-28 (version 1)

Versions

Issue

Section

Research Article

How to Cite

1.
Albrecht J, Scheiner J. Leaving, Staying in and Returning to the Hometown: Couple’s residential location choices at the time of family formation. RuR [Internet]. 2022 Aug. 31 [cited 2024 Jun. 22];80(4):414-33. Available from: https://rur.oekom.de/index.php/rur/article/view/132

Funding data

Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)